The Success Syndrome that debilitates so many companies also tends to create a dependence on consultants which borders on the ludicrous. Public relations departments are advised by outside PR firms. Legal departments can scarcely make a move without first checking with outside counsel. Marketing and advertising people, engineering groups and even manufacturing executives feel no qualms about hiring outsiders to generate ideas and programs which in most cases are not any better, if as good, than those that could be developed internally … In most cases the real purpose was never honestly stated since this was either (a) to farm out work that should have been done internally (b) to bolster the self-confidence of, and pro­vide direction to, executives who had no ideas of their own or (c) to help incompetent managers cover their tracks by producing rec­ommendations that reinforced actions already taken